Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance

Antiseptics are used to sterilise surfaces of living tissue when the risk of contamination is high, such as during surgery. Antiseptics are non-selective antimicrobials, killing a wide range of micro-organisms including bacteria. They are used on non-living exteriors. bacteria are not the only microbes that can be hurtful to us. Fungi and viruses can also be a danger to humans, and they are targeted by antifungals and antivirals, respectively. Only substances that target bacteria are called antibiotics, while the name antimicrobial is an umbrella term for anything that inhibits or kills microbial cells including antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals and chemicals such as antiseptics. Most antibiotics used today are produced in laboratories, but they are often based on compounds scientists have found in nature. Some microbes, for example, produce substances specifically to kill other nearby bacteria in order to gain an advantage when competing for food, water or other limited resources. However, some microbes only produce antibiotics in the laboratory.


  • Track 1-1 Antifungals
  • Track 2-2 Antivirals
  • Track 3-3 growth of the bacteria
  • Track 4-4 Antimicrobial drugs
  • Track 5-5 Antimicrobials

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